Category Archives: Immunology, inflammation, infectiology and microbiology

Towards a Drug to Combat a Severe Intestinal Disease in Children, Immunocompromised Patients

Researchers have recently discovered a new candidate drug to control cryptosporidiosis, a severe intestinal disease in children, immunocompromised patients, and young ruminants. Beyond this disease, their research represents an opportunity to discover new therapeutic avenues for related infections, such as toxoplasmosis and malaria.

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Une piste prometteuse pour la prévention de la sarcopénie et le traitement des maladies neuromusculaires.

En étudiant des muscles jeunes et vieillissants dans un modèle murin, des chercheurs du Centre de recherche en myologie (Sorbonne Université / Inserm) de l’Institut de Myologie sont parvenus à identifier une protéine, la CaVβ1E, qui est à l’origine de l’activation du facteur GDF5. Ce mécanisme permet de prévenir la sarcopénie en maintenant la masse et la force musculaire des souris âgées. L’équipe a identifié la protéine CaVβ1E chez l’homme et montré que son expression est corrélée à la perte de masse musculaire des sujets âgés.

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A Vaccine to Overcome Immunotherapy Resistance

Researchers have shown that a commercially-available vaccine can overcome resistance to immunotherapy. Their study, published in Science Translational Medicine, shows that not only can gastroenteritis vaccines induce the immunogenic death of cancer cells in vitro, but also that combining them with immunotherapy triggers a potent anti-tumor immune response in vivo – where immunotherapy alone had failed.

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Is physical activity always good for the heart?

Physical activity is thought to be our greatest ally in the fight against cardiovascular disease. But there may be significant variations in its protective effects across a range of different situations, such as regularly playing a sport, carrying heavy loads at work, or going for a walk with friends. These are the findings of a new study led by Inserm researcher Jean-Philippe Empana (U970 PARCC, Inserm/Université de Paris) in collaboration with Australian researchers.

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Un « Google Maps » du système immunitaire pour prédire la réponse aux traitements contre le cancer

Une équipe conjointe Inserm et Institut Curie a développé une carte interactive des réponses immunitaires potentielles en cas de cancer.

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Aging with HIV Linked to Increased Risk of Cognitive Impairment

Thanks to antiretroviral therapies, it is possible to grow old with HIV under control. However, this chronic infection may not leave cognitive function unscathed. That is why Alain Makinson (Translational Research on HIV and Infectious Diseases unit, Montpellier University Hospital, Université de Montpellier, Inserm, IRD) and his team were interested in exploring the development of neurocognitive impairment (NCI), such as diminished attention, memory and motor capacity, in patients living with HIV in the ANRS EP58 HAND 55-70 study.

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Dysentery: Shigella, bacteria with adaptation to respiration

Imagerie montrant la déplétion de l'oxygène au sein de la muqueuse intestinale par Shigella (vert), induisant une hypoxie (rouge) au sein des foyers infectieux inflammatoires (neutrophiles: marqués à l'aide du Myelotracker, bleu).

Bacillary dysentery caused by the intestinal bacteria Shigella is a major health problem in tropical regions and developing countries. Complications from this infection lead to several hundred thousand deaths a year, primarily among infants. Researchers from Inserm and the Institut Pasteur have studied the mechanisms of Shigella virulence. They found that these bacteria are not only able to consume the oxygen in colonic tissue in order to grow and create foci of infection, but can also adapt their mode of respiration so that they can continue to grow once the oxygen in these foci has been used up.

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Identified: A Protein Essential for Chikungunya Virus Replication

Chikungunya is characterized by high fever and intense joint and muscle pain that can last for several months. The mechanisms of infection of human cells with the virus remain very poorly understood. Led by Ali Amara in collaboration with Marc Lecuit researchers from Inserm, Institut Pasteur, CNRS and Université de Paris have identified a protein that is crucial in order for the virus to replicate within its target cells.

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Disarming a probiotic to improve its benefits

In a recent study, researchers managed to decipher certain pathways by which Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 produces both beneficial and toxic compounds. They then successfully created a modified strain with the same probiotic properties but an unactivated version of the toxin.

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A Single Dose of Yellow Fever Vaccine Does Not Offer Lasting Protection to all Children

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a single dose of the yellow fever vaccine for individuals aged 9 months or older living in or traveling to areas at risk of disease transmission, but there is a lack of data on its long-term efficacy when administered to infants. José Enrique Mejía, Inserm researcher at Unit 1043 Center for Pathophysiology of Toulouse Purpan and Cristina Domingo from the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin have recently shown that around half of children initially protected by the vaccination at 9 months of age lose that protection within the next 2 to 5 years, due to disappearance of the neutralizing antibodies.

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