Category Archives: Immunology, inflammation, infectiology and microbiology

Phage Therapy: A Model to Predict Its Efficacy against Pathogenic Bacteria

While bacteriophages – viruses that kill bacteria – could be a solution for fighting antibiotic-resistant pathogens, various obstacles stand in the way of their clinical development. To overcome them, researchers have developed a model to better predict the efficacy of phage therapy and possibly develop more robust clinical trials.

Influenza: A New Avenue for Developing Innovative Treatments

Cellules épithéliales respiratoires

Seasonal influenza is a major public health issue because it continues to remain associated with considerable mortality, particularly among people who are elderly, immunocompromised, or both. With vaccination and current treatments still being of limited efficacy, research teams are trying to develop new therapeutic approaches. Scientists have shown that in a context of influenza infection, a metabolite called succinate, which is naturally present in the body, has an antiviral and anti-inflammatory action. These findings open up new therapeutic prospects based on the use of succinate derivatives.

Production de nanoparticules délétères pour l’hôte par les bactéries responsables de sepsis

De récents résultats montrent que dans la lutte contre le sepsis, il ne faut pas seulement tuer les bactéries en cause, mais réduire aussi leur capacité à produire des vésicules de quelques dizaines de nanomètres (appelées OMV pour Outer Membrane Vesicle en anglais). Pour cela, il faut agir directement en amont sur les mécanismes de production de ces nanoparticules et/ou en développant des stratégies thérapeutiques pour les éliminer. L’équipe a en effet montré que ces OMV sont très délétères pour l’hôte, et pourraient favoriser l’aggravation du sepsis.

HIV: The Antibodies of “Post-treatment Controllers”

VIH

A very small percentage of people with HIV-1, known as “post-treatment controllers” (PTCs), are able to control their infection after interrupting all antiretroviral therapy. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms that govern their immune response is essential in order to develop HIV-1 vaccines, novel therapeutic strategies to achieve remission, or both. A recent study investigated the humoral immune response – also known as antibody-mediated immunity – in some PTCs in whom transient episodes of viral activity were observed. The researchers have shown their humoral immune response to be both effective and robust, which could help to control the infection in the absence of treatment.

Vers des traitements plus adaptés pour les patients immunodéprimés

Après une greffe de moelle osseuse, les patients atteints d’un déficit immunitaire sévère retrouvent leurs défenses immunitaires et peuvent reprendre une vie normale. Cependant, en regardant ce qui se passe au niveau de la sphère nasopharyngée, là où se met en place la première ligne de défense immunitaire, des chercheurs de l’Institut Pasteur, d’Université Paris Cité, de l’Inserm, de l’AP-HP et en collaboration avec l’Institut Imagine, ont mis en évidence une défaillance des mécanismes immunitaires chez certains de ces patients.

Discovery of an immune escape mechanism promoting Listeria infection of the central nervous system

vaisseau cérébral

Scientists have discovered a mechanism that enables cells infected with Listeria monocytogenes to escape immune responses. This mechanism provides infected cells circulating in the blood with a higher probability of adhering to and infecting cells of cerebral vessels, thereby enabling bacteria to cross the blood-brain barrier and infect the brain.

MICA: A New Immune Response Gene That Predicts Kidney Transplant Failure

Researchers report that the MICA gene is a new histocompatibility gene, in that it helps to better explain and predict the success or failure of a kidney transplant. Their findings have been published in Nature Medicine.

Discovery of an innate immunological memory in the intestine

Researchers from the Institut Pasteur and Inserm discovered that innate effector cells – group 3 innate lymphoid cells – act not only during the early stages of infection but can also be trained to develop an innate form of immunological memory that can protect the host during reinfection.

La prise du traitement du VIH intermittente aussi efficace qu’une prise quotidienne chez les patients traités

Macrophages infectés par le VIH : Les protéines virales sont en vert, les microtubules en rouge et les noyaux en bleu. Taille des noyaux : 5µm © Inserm/Institut Curie, R. Gaudin/P. Bernaroch

Parmi les pistes explorées pour améliorer la tolérance des traitements antirétroviraux (ARV) chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH), ainsi que la réduction des coûts, le projet ANRS 170 QUATUOR a étudié la prise du traitement ARV quatre jours par semaine au lieu d’une prise quotidienne, en régime d’entretien . C’est la première étude randomisée à évaluer cette stratégie. Cette approche innovante a montré sa non-infériorité après 48 semaines de suivi chez 636 patients.

A Novel Immunotherapy Approach Redirects Epstein-Barr Antibodies toward Disease-Causing Cells

Monoclonal antibody therapy can be very effective in treating numerous illnesses, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory conditions, and infectious diseases. Researchers from Inserm, Université de Paris, Sorbonne Université and CNRS1 have designed and tested a new immunotherapy approach that uses pre-existing antibodies directed against the Epstein-Barr virus – part of the herpes family of viruses and present in over 95% of the world’s population – in order to target and destroy pathogenic (disease-causing) cells. Their findings have recently been published in a study in Science Advances.

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