Category Archives: Immunology, inflammation, infectiology and microbiology

Explaining Chronic and Relapsing Eczema

The researchers discovered that not only do the allergens persist in the skin for several weeks but also that they are not alone in doing so. Indeed, immune cells – known as tissue-resident memory T cells – proliferate at the lesion sites and remain there for long periods, reactivating the onset of eczema patches in the event of re-exposure to the allergen.

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L’hépatite D, un virus qui en utilise d’autres

(Français) Des recherches démontrent dans un modèle de souris au foie humanisé, que le VHD est capable in vitro et in vivo d’utiliser l’enveloppe d’autres virus que celle du VHB, comme celle du virus de l’hépatite C et de virus d’autres genres, comme celui de la dengue.

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Fertility and endometriosis: a research update from Inserm

Today, around 1 in 8 couples seek help because they are struggling to conceive. Infertility has therefore become a public health problem, and the scientific community is rallying in response.

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Flu Shot: Cutaneous Administration Improves Efficacy

The team of Béhazine Combadière, Inserm Research Director at Unit 1135 “Center for Immunology and Infectious Diseases”, has been working for years on the impact of vaccine administration routes on the quality of immune responses.

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Nanoblades: shuttles for genome surgery

Researchers are now able to edit the genome with precision using the “gene editing scissors” of CRISPR-Cas9, which is a highly promising tool for gene therapy. The technical challenge now is to get this tool into the genome of certain cells. With this in mind, a joint team from Inserm, the CNRS, the Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, and the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, working within the International Center for Infectiology Research (CIRI), have developed capsules that allow CRISPR-Cas9 to reach the target DNA: Nanoblades.

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HIV/tuberculosis co-infection: tunnelling towards better diagnosis

1.2 million people in the world are co-infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria which causes tuberculosis, and AIDS (HIV-1). This combination is deadly: it makes patient diagnosis and treatment difficult, and increases the pathogenicity of these two infectious agents. An international team led by researchers at the CNRS and Inserm have revealed that in the presence of tuberculosis, HIV-1 moves from one cell to the next via nanotubes which form between macrophages, drastically increasing the percentage of infected cells. These findings appear in the 26 March 2019 edition of Cell Reports.

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Découverte d’une réaction immunitaire cruciale lors de la diversification alimentaire pour prévenir l’apparition des maladies inflammatoires

(Français) Les microbes colonisent l’ensemble des surfaces de notre corps et participent au bon équilibre de notre système immunitaire. Chez les nouveau-nés, le microbiote intestinal est d’abord formaté par les composants du lait maternel. Lors de la diversification alimentaire, il se développe et de nombreuses bactéries prolifèrent. Des chercheurs de l’Institut Pasteur et de l’Inserm montrent chez la souris qu’une réponse immunitaire importante se produit lors de l’introduction de nourriture solide et du développement du microbiote. Mais surtout, ils ont montré que cette réaction immunitaire était essentielle car elle participe à l’éducation du système immunitaire, et permet, à l’âge adulte, une faible susceptibilité aux maladies inflammatoires (allergies, colites, maladies auto-immunes, cancer). Ces résultats ont été publiés dans la revue Immunity, le 19 mars 2019.

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Behind a Rare Disease: A Gut Sensitive to the Cold and Intolerant of its Own Bacteria

A mechanism of tolerance towards intestinal flora is thought to be implicated in the onset of a rare familial autoinflammatory disease induced by cold temperatures. This is the finding of researchers from the Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille (Inserm/Université de Lille/CNRS/University Hospital Lille/Institut Pasteur de Lille), the Pathophysiology of Pediatric Genetic Diseases laboratory (Inserm/Sorbonne Université) and the Department of Immunology at the University of Hohenheim. Their research, published in Nature Communications, reveals the implication in its onset of an exacerbated inflammatory response against the gut flora, making for a more effective immune response against certain pathogens.

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Successful In Utero Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Fetus with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

Teams from the Biological Therapy Department and Pediatric Immunohematology Unit at Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital AP-HP, the Fetal Medicine Department at Trousseau Hospital AP-HP, Inserm, the Imagine Institute, Université Paris Descartes and Sorbonne Université have achieved the in utero transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells in a fetus with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

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Direct-acting antivirals: confirmation of their short-term clinical efficacy in “real life”

A study published in The Lanceton 11 february 2019shows that direct-acting antivirals have short-term clinical benefits in the treatment of hepatitisCvirusinfection. These results come from ANRS-funded interdisciplinary research conducted byclinicians,hepatologists, and epidemiologistsof theInserm, SorbonneUniversityand AP-HPandcoordinatedby ProfessorsFabrice CarratandStanislas Pol,and Dr Hélène Fontaine,1in9895 patientsof the ANRS CO 22 HEPATHERnational cohortrecruitedin 32 centers in France.

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