Category Archives: Immunology, inflammation, infectiology and microbiology

Cancer under pressure: visualizing the activity of the immune system on tumor development

As tumors develop, they evolve genetically. How does the immune system act when faced with tumor cells? How does it exert pressure on the genetic diversity of cancer cells? Scientists from the Institut Pasteur and Inserm used in vivo video techniques and cell-specific staining to visualize the action of immune cells in response to the proliferation of cancer cells. The findings have been published in the journal Science Immunology on November 23, 2018.

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liver cancer and hepatitis C virus to maintain interest in screening programs cirrhotic patients cured of the virus infection with interferon or antiviral direct

The findings, published in the journal Gastroenterology in November 2018, show that if the liver cancer risk is greatly reduced after viral eradication in these patients, it still persists and justified to keep patients with viral cirrhosis C cured in screening programs. This study also confirms the benefits of virologic cure the risk of hepatic carcinogenesis regardless of the type of antiviral treatment.

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Bile acid receptor controls hepatitis B virus replication

Researchers from CIRI – International Center for Research in Infectious Diseases in Lyon (Inserm, CNRS, ENS Lyon and Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University), supported by the ANRS, are demonstrating the link between activation of a bile acid receptor found in liver cells and the reduction in hepatitis B virus replication in mice infected with the virus.

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Outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis undetected by standard tests

Amid a plan announced by the United Nations to eradicate tuberculosis by 2030, a new study has revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of the disease which go undetected by WHO-endorsed tests. These findings, from an international research team co-directed by CNRS researcher Philip Supply at the Center of Infection and Immunity of Lille (CNRS/INSERM/Institut Pasteur de Lille/Université de Lille), are published in the 17 October 2018 edition of The Lancet Infectious Diseases. This follows another article, published in the 26 September edition of The New England Journal of Medicine, proposing a new algorithm to detect resistant strains of tuberculosis.

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NONO, “The Red Flag System” That Detects HIV

There is not one but several types of HIV. Although HIV-1, which is the most common, wreaks havoc in infected populations, this is not the case for HIV-2 which less frequently leads to the development of AIDS. But why does the immune system do a better job of fighting this version of the virus? Researchers from Inserm and Institut Curie looked at this question. Researchers from Inserm and Institut Curie identified the NONO protein, a detector which is more sensitive to HIV-2 and responsible for direct recognition of the virus by the immune system. This work, published in the journal Cell, provides a better understanding of the natural control of HIV and paves the way for new progress in the search for a vaccine for this virus.

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20% of reactions to radiologic contrast media are real allergies

A team of Pole-Imaging Research Explorations-European Hospital Georges Pompidou AP-HP, Paris Descartes University and INSERM led by Professor Olivier Clément, and a team from Caen University Hospital and the University of Caen Normandy, led by Dr Dominique Laroche, conducted the first national prospective multicenter study on allergic reactions to contrast media in radiology. 31 centers in France bringing together radiologists investigators, allergists, anesthetists and biologists have investigated 245 cases of hypersensitivity to contrast media.

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Deciphering the link between skin allergies and the gut microbiota

Over the last few years, scientists have discovered connections between gut microbiota imbalances and various diseases. Now, in a study using mice, biologists from the CNRS, INSERM, and Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University—together with colleagues from the Institut Pasteur de Lille and the NIH (USA)—have revealed a surprising relationship between a viral detection system, the composition of the gut microbiota, and the development of skin allergies.[1] Their findings, published in PNAS (September 24, 2018) suggest potential new therapies.

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Major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of allograft rejection

Prof. Alexander Loupy, Hospital Necker Children AP-HP and Prof. Carmen Lefaucheur, the Saint-Louis Hospital AP-HP and the University Paris Diderot in the Cardiovascular Research Center (Inserm / Paris Descartes University), showed, in an article published in the journal   New England Journal of Medicine September 20, 2018, the latest advances and applications of artificial intelligence carried out in the field of transplantation, including the diagnosis and the treatment of allograft rejection.

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When Infection Strikes, Our Brain and Immune System Join Forces

When infection strikes, what if our immune system was not alone in the fight? What if its major ally was in fact the brain? Researchers from Inserm, CNRS and Aix-Marseille University (AMU) have observed mechanisms of cooperation between the nervous system and the immune system in the response to pathogenic aggressions. This research, published in Nature Immunology, reveals the role of the brain in regulating the inflammatory reaction induced by the immune system in the event of infection and its protective effect against a potential self-destructive exacerbation of that inflammation.

Also posted in Press releases, Neurosciences, cognitives sciences, neurology and psychiatry | Tagged | Comments closed

One quarter of deaths and cases of serious after-effects related to meningitis in children can be avoided by applying the immunization schedule

In a context of increasing vaccine hesitancy, researchers from Inserm and pediatricians from the Nantes and Grand-Ouest university hospitals together with the Paris public hospitals (AP-HP) sound the alarm concerning the consequences of severe bacterial infections in children. In a study published in Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, the researchers showed, over a period of 5 years, that 25 % of deaths and 25 % of serious after-effects occurring in children with a severe bacterial infection (primarily meningitis) could have been avoided by simply applying the immunization schedule, notably against meningococcus and pneumococcus.

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