Category Archives: Circulation, metabolism, nutrition

Decoding a direct dialog between the gut microbiota and the brain

Schéma montrant le dialogue direct entre le microbiote intestinal et le cerveau

Scientists from the Institut Pasteur (a partner research organization of Université Paris Cité), Inserm and the CNRS have discovered that hypothalamic neurons in an animal model directly detect variations in bacterial activity and adapt appetite and body temperature accordingly. These findings demonstrate that a direct dialog occurs between the gut microbiota and the brain, a discovery that could lead to new therapeutic approaches for tackling metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The findings are due to be published in Science on 2022 04 15.

Artificial Sweeteners: Possible Link to Increased Cancer Risk

édulcorant artificiel

In order to evaluate the risk of cancer linked to them, researchers analyzed data relating to the health of 102,865 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study and their consumption of artificial sweeteners. The results of these statistical analyses suggest a link between the consumption of artificial sweeteners and an increased risk of cancer.

Persistence of severe hepatic fibrosis despite substantial weight loss with bariatric surgery

A study on the effects of bariatric surgery on the severity of liver damage in patients with NASH (Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis or Metabolic Steatohepatitis) and severe fibrosis (bridge fibrosis or compensated cirrhosis) shows that in 50% of patients who underwent bariatric surgery, despite significant weight loss (20% to 30% of initial BMI) and improvement in metabolic risk factors (mainly type 2 diabetes), severe fibrosis persists in the medium term (5 years after surgery).

Improvement in the Health of Two Infants with Severe Disharmonious Overgrowth Syndromes

A new study reports clinical, biological, and imaging improvements in two infants with severe forms of disharmonious overgrowth syndromes treated with alpelisib. These are the first data obtained on the use of this molecule in severe neonatal forms of the disease.

Cohort study identifies genetic cause for rare form of diet-induced Cushing syndrome

Researchers carried out work, to study the genetic cause of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with diet-induced Cushing’s syndrome. This rare disease affects the two adrenal glands located above the kidneys and causes an overproduction of cortisol, a steroid hormone whose excess has harmful consequences for the body . Researchers were able to determine the molecular explanation for the occurrence of this disease 30 years after its initial description.

COVID-19: Artificial Intelligence Identifies Gene Signature Specific to Patients Suffering from Critical Forms

What are the molecular and genetic characteristics that distinguish patients with critical forms of COVID-19 – and particularly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)? Researchers have investigated the biological and genomic data of a targeted cohort of young patients. Patients hospitalized in intensive care with ARDS were compared with COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a non-critical care ward. As part of a Franco-US collaboration, the scientists have succeeded in identifying a gene signature that differentiates these critical patients from their non-critical counterparts.

Découverte de nouveaux marqueurs génétiques à l’origine d’une maladie des artères essentiellement féminine

artériographie d'une artère carotide

La dysplasie fibromusculaire artérielle (DFM) est une anomalie de la paroi de certaines artères entraînant une augmentation du risque cardiovasculaire chez les personnes qui en sont atteintes. 3% de la population générale pourrait en être affectée et au moins 80% des personnes atteintes de cette maladie sont des femmes. Des chercheurs sont parvenus à décrire la composante génétique de la maladie, premier par vers l’identification de nouvelles cibles thérapeutiques.

The appendix is not an unnecessary organ but is in fact correlated with a longer lifespan

koala

Long considered an unnecessary organ, the appendix is now the focus of several studies that aim to better understand its role. Present in many mammals, including humans, it appears to have developed at least 16 times over the course of the evolutionary history of mammals, suggesting that its function must confer a positive selective advantage on those that have it.

Hippurate, a metabolite derived from gut bacteria, is associated with microbiotal diversity

Good gut microbiota function has an impact on our general physical and psychological health. Understanding how the architecture of the microbiota and the function of the bacteria that inhabit it affect the body has become a key research focus in recent years.

Vaccins anti Covid-19 et thrombose : de quoi parle-t-on ?

Vaccination

Suite aux cas de thromboses survenus après la vaccination contre la Covid-19, l’équipe du Pr David Smadja, professeur d’hématologie d’Université de Paris, membre du service d’hématologie de l’hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou AP-HP et directeur d’une équipe de l’unité Inserm 1140 (Université de Paris) a analysé, à la demande du Centre de Pharmacovigilance de l’OMS, près de 2 000 cas signalés dans le monde.

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