D’après la Fédération des pharmaciens d’officine (FSPF), plus d’un million de personnes en France s’étaient déjà faites vaccinées contre la grippe au 1er novembre 2019, deux semaines après le lancement de la campagne annuelle. Avec le réseau Sentinelles et le projet Grippenet, l’Inserm participe activement à la surveillance des apparitions de symptômes grippaux sur le territoire français.
Entamée le 15 octobre, la campagne de vaccination contre la grippe 2019 continue de s’étendre, les pharmaciens dénombrant déjà plus d’un million de doses administrées au 1er novembre sur les 4 millions de doses délivrées. Dans notre dossier d’information sur la grippe, nous rappelons que c’est 2 à 8 millions de personnes qui sont touchées chaque année par le virus de la grippe, également appelé Influenzavirus.
Fatigue, fièvre, toux, « nez qui coule » : si les symptômes sont en apparence similaires à ceux d’un rhume ou d’une rhinopharyngite, la grippe est plus éprouvante que les autres pathologies fréquentes de l’hiver. Mutant chaque année, l’Influenzavirus peut même s’avérer mortel, notamment pour les enfants, les personnes âgées et les personnes fragiles, faisant en moyenne 5000 morts chaque année.
Sous haute surveillance à l’échelle mondiale, l’épidémie annuelle de grippe l’est aussi en France, sous la coordination de Santé publique France. C’est dans cet objectif que, depuis 1984, l’Inserm participe à la tenue du réseau Sentinelles, en partenariat avec la faculté de médecine de la Sorbonne. Plus de 1400 médecins généralistes et pédiatres libéraux, tous volontaires et répartis sur le territoire métropolitain, fournissent les données de leurs consultations afin d’établir un bilan statistique et géographique des tendances épidémiologiques. Les indicateurs ainsi fournis permettent d’évaluer l’incidence de nombreuses pathologies de manière hebdomadaire. On sait ainsi que les symptômes grippaux sont encore légers en cette fin de mois de novembre, même si certaines tendances se démarquent dans les Cévennes, dans l’Artois et dans le bocage mayennais.
Par ailleurs, les chercheurs et les professionnels de Santé peuvent aussi se reposer sur les données de surveillance fournis par le projet Grippenet. Mis en place en 2012 par le réseau Sentinelles, c’est un projet de surveillance épidémiologique permettant à tout le monde de participer en ligne, anonymement, en renseignant les symptômes dont ils pourraient souffrir d’une semaine sur l’autre. Cela permet aux chercheurs de l’Inserm et de Sorbonne Université de suivre l’évolution d’individus pouvant monter des symptômes grippaux sans pour autant avoir été consulter un médecin généraliste.
Bruno Lina, chercheur Inserm au Centre international de recherche en infectiologie (CIRI) de Lyon déclarait pour notre dossier que « [les] outils de lutte actuels ne suffisent pas à éliminer le problème de santé lié à la grippe. Nous avons un vrai besoin de connaissances dans tous les domaines ». Le réseau Sentinelles, avec l’appui du projet Grippenet, sont des outils importants pour les chercheurs désireux d’enrichir les connaissances épidémiologiques sur l’Influenzavirus et, entre autres, d’améliorer les mesures de prévention et l’efficacité des vaccins contre la grippe.
Back in 2016, a team from Inserm had made a major contribution to the development of an aerosol capable of rapidly administering, into the deepest reaches of the lungs, an antidote to ricin. Ricin is highly toxic when inhaled and dreaded in the event of a bioterrorism attack.
Three years: this is the time it took an Inserm team at the Research Center for Respiratory Diseases (Tours) to develop an aerosol capable of depositing a ricin antidote into the deepest reaches of the lungs. This research was performed as part of an international consortium, involving the Université de Tours, the French Armed Forces Biomedical Research Institute (IRBA) and DTF medical (Saint-Etienne), a company specialized in innovative medical devices.
Among the challenges addressed: adapt this antibody for clinical use and, above all, succeed in effectively delivering it into the lungs – particularly into the small air sacs where ricin has a devastating effect. This is the reason why the French army sought the help of an Inserm laboratory specialized in biological medicinal product administration via the respiratory route. The project was funded by the French government defense procurement and technology agency (DGA).
Consult the full article on the Inserm website
Usutu is an arbovirus from the same family as the Zika and West Nile viruses. Like its cousins, it is transmitted by mosquitoes. While we know that it is responsible for high mortality in birds, principally passerines, knowledge on human pathology remains limited.
As with other arboviruses, the majority of cases of human infection are probably asymptomatic. Nevertheless, rare neurological complications have been reported, justifying further research into its mechanism of action.
Only 26 cases of human infection by Usutu have been reported in Europe, a figure which is most certainly underestimated according to Yannick Simonin, lecturer-researcher specialized in the virus, given the non-existence of commercial screening tests and the general ignorance of the associated symptoms.
Animal studies show very strong neurological tropism of Usutu. Very recently, Simonin and his team from Unit 1058 “Pathogenesis and control of chronic infections” (Inserm/Université Montpellier/Montpellier University Hospital/ EFS) published in Emerging Infectious Diseases results showing its presence in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient from Montpellier University Hospital in 2016, confirming this neurotropism. The clinical symptoms of the patient, which included temporary facial paralysis, had not until that point been linked to any specific disease. Additional investigations are necessary if we are to improve our understanding of the clinical picture associated with this emerging virus.
The research activities developed by JRU 1058 include determining the virulence, notably neuronal, of the various Usutu strains circulating in France in order to compare them in the laboratory and evaluate their pathogenicity. The Unit is also studying the transmission mechanisms of the virus in order to better elucidate the associated risks.
The Astre unit of CIRAD partner of Unit 1058 for this study, is also participating in vector mapping the Usutu virus.
A study published in the Bulletin épidémiologique hebdomadaire (BEH – Weekly Epidemiology Report) for World Parkinson’s Day suggests that the risk of developing the disease is higher in people who live in farming districts.
A national study, published in the BEH devoted to the epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease in France, is researching the incidence of Parkinson’s disease in relation to the agricultural characteristics of French districts. Two Inserm researchers, Sofiane Kab and Alexis Elbaz (Inserm/Santé Publique France) are participating in the study.
By analyzing the French state health insurance’s SNIIRAM database, this national study confirms that Parkinson’s disease is associated with professional exposure to pesticides, a fact that has already been revealed by several studies. This has made it possible to observe that Parkinson’s disease occurs more frequently among those affiliated to the social security body for agricultural workers (Mutualité Sociale Agricole), particularly farmers, than among affiliates of other national health insurance plans.
On top of this, the results suggest that non-professional pesticide exposure related to environmental exposure, for example, could also increase the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. The number of cases of Parkinson’s disease that can be attributed to pesticide exposure is thought to surpass professional exposure.
These results do need to be confirmed by complementary studies.
Yet they tend to confirm that the incidence of Parkinson’s disease in the general population is higher in the most highly agricultural districts, especially viticultural districts.
View Inserm’s latest press releases on Parkinson’s disease :
From March 12 to 18, 2018, for Brain Awareness Week, the general public is invited to discover the latest neuroscientific advances in an array of free events: conferences, workshops, exhibits, film screenings, and encounters with those involved in research.
The twentieth annual Brain Awareness Week will take place in over one hundred countries and more than forty cities in France. Researchers from major research organizations, neuroscience institutes, and the realm of university hospitals will offer a fun, varied program: exhibits, film screenings, shows, conferences for the general public, workshops, debates, laboratory tours, and children’s events.
Brain Awareness Week is coordinated by the Society for Neuroscience in partnership with the Brain Research Federation, under the aegis of the European Dana Alliance for the Brain.
The event’s website: www.semaineducerveau.fr/2018
View the press pack
Inserm, a Brain Awareness Week 2018 partner, is organizing several events throughout France with help from its researchers and regional offices. The press service provides journalists with contact information for the event’s reference researchers.
U1171 Degenerative and vascular cognitive disorders
+33 (0)3 20 44 64 22
“Neuropeptides, neuronal death, and cell plasticity” team leader
U1239 Neuronal and neuroendocrine differentiation and communication
+33 (0)2 35 14 67 60
Ile de France Office
Addiction mission leader
Scientific Information and Communication Department
+33 (0)1 44 23 67 65
“Molecular genetics of circadian rhythms” team leader
UMR9197 Paris-Saclay Institute of Neuroscience (NEURO-PSI)
+33 (0)1 69 82 34 36
U1130 Paris Seine Neuroscience
“Normal and pathologic glutamatergic neurons” team
+33 (0)1 44 27 60 68
U930 Imaging and brain
“Neurogenetics and neurometabolomic” team
+33 (0)2 47 36 60 62
Director of Unit 949 Biology and pharmacology of blood platelets: hemostasis, thrombosis, transfusion
+33 (0)3 88 21 25 25
U1215 NeuroCentre Magendie
“Energy balance and obesity” team
+33 (0)1 40 78 92 22
“Gene therapies and animal models for neurodegenerative illnesses” team leader
U968 Vision institute
+33 (0)1 53 46 25 32
“Development and validation of biomarkers in MRI and nuclear medicine” team leader
U1214 TONIC (Toulouse neuroimaging center)
+33 (0)5 62 74 61 96
U1208 Stem cell and brain research institute
“Chronobiology and affective disorders” team
+33 (0)4 72 91 34 89
U1028 CRNL – Center for Research in Neuroscience in Lyon
“DYCOG – Brain dynamics and cognition” team
+33 (0)4 72 13 89 21
U1216 Grenoble Institute of Neuroscience (GIN)
“Brain stimulation and systems neuroscience” team
+33 (0)4 56 52 06 75
Occitanie Méditerranée Office
U1061 Neuropsychiatry: epidemiological and clinical research
+33 (0)4 99 61 45 78
U1051 Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier: sensory and motor deficits
“Genetics and therapy for retinal and optic nerve blindness” team
+33 (0)4 99 63 60 52
“Physiology and physiopathology of neural networks” team leader
U1106 Institute of systems neuroscience – INS
+33 (0)4 91 32 42 49
View Inserm’s latest neurosciences publications:
February 28, 2018, marks the eleventh annual world Rare Disease Day, which carries the slogan “Show your rare. Show you care.” and the #ShowYourRare hashtag. World Rare Disease Day was created in 2008 by EURORDIS and the Council of National Alliances. Ninety countries will be participating in 2018.
Orphanet: a Portal for Rare Diseases and Orphan Drugs
Orphanet, which is coordinated by Inserm and is a member of the Rare Disease Platform, is the portal of reference for rare diseases and orphan drugs. It offers an array of freely accessible services to allow patients to understand their disease and its consequences, and to orient them in their care pathways by identifying diagnosis laboratories and reference centers.
SOLVE-RD: Major European Funding for Rare Disease Research
A large consortium headed by the University of Tübingen (Germany), the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen (Netherlands), and the University of Leicester (UK), as well as Inserm in France through Orphanet, two major research institutions (the Myology Center for Research and the Brain and Spine institute in Paris), Eurordis, and the Dijon University Hospital, received a €15 million grant for the SOLVE-RD research program.
This large-scale research program is operating under the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 program. Its aim is to use a single infrastructure to coordinate and analyze all data generated across Europe on rare diseases in order to better identify and diagnose people suffering from the same rare disease.
Today, no less than twenty-four European Reference Networks (ERN) have been set up to improve and harmonize diagnosis and treatment for people with rare diseases. To date, four of them have joined SOLVE-RD by adding and sharing their patient data: RND for rare neurological diseases, EURO-NMD for neuromuscular diseases, ITHACA for congenital malformations and intellectual disability, and GENTURIS for genetic tumor risk syndromes. Other ERNs will join the project in the months to come.
The SOLVE-RD Member Inserm Teams
Inserm Unit US14 Information and service platform for rare diseases and orphan drugs (Orphanet)
Contribution: description of profiles of patients suffering from unnamed rare diseases
Inserm Unit 1127 Brain and Spine Institute (ICM)
Inserm Unit 974 Myology Center for Research (CRM)
View Inserm’s latest press releases on rare diseases:
A Major Advance towards a Treatment for Accelerated Ageing
Reluctance, or indeed mistrust, towards immunization, is an understandable sentiment, particularly among young parents when their babies are about to be immunized. While this principle may currently seem less vital, or even optional, to parents who no longer face the same tragedies arising from infection as in the past, it nonetheless remains an essential public health measure.
Mandatory immunization came into force on January 1, 2018, and has thus given rise to concerns and debate in public opinion. Numerous scientific falsehoods are doing the rounds, underlining the so-called hazards of vaccines, and debating the relevance of immunization. On December 18, Inserm published a Clarification which aims to provide the scientific perspective on the 11 vaccines which will be mandatory for all infants in France in 2018.
In the face of these rumors, Alain Fischer, pediatrician, immunology researcher, coordinator of Concertation Citoyenne sur la vaccination, and Philippe Sansonetti, specialist in infectious diseases, microbiology researcher, author of “Vaccins”, both professors at the Collège de France, have joined forces to offer an in-depth review of every aspect of immunization.
Read the press kit from the conference organized on December 22
The Sentinel network, a collaborative surveillance system developed by Inserm and Pierre and Marie Curie University (UPMC), is made up of 1,300 primary care practitioners, and approximately one hundred independent pediatricians, spread over mainland France. The network is coordinated by the “Transmissible Diseases Surveillance and Modeling” team at the Inserm and UPMC Pierre Louis Epidemiology and Public Health Institute (iPLESP), in collaboration with the French National Public Health Agency (ANRS) and Santé Publique France (French Public Health Agency). The data are transferred in real time, based on 9 health indicators. Analysis of these data thus makes it possible to estimate the weekly incidence rate for each indicator, and to monitor changes at national level.
According to the weekly Sentinel network newsletter dated December 13, 2017, the incidence rate for cases of acute diarrhea is above the epidemic threshold (188 cases per 100,000 inhabitants). According to the Sentinel network, it is still too early to talk about an epidemic, strictly speaking, and the level of activity for acute diarrhea should remain stable in the next few weeks.
The Sentinel network states that the highest incidence rates for acute diarrhea have been observed in the Provence-Alpes-Côtes d’Azur, Pays de la Loire, and Hauts-de-France regions.
On the other hand, influenza syndrome, until now well below the epidemic threshold, has increased from 19 cases, to 98 cases per 10,000 inhabitants. The highest incidence rates have been observed in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Brittany, and Centre-Val de Loire regions. The Sentinel network, which now comprises a new instrument for detecting influenza epidemics developed with Santé Publique France (French Public Health Agency), indicates a marked increase in influenza activity in mainland France.