Monthly Archives: November 2022

Tuberculosis: children hospitalized with severe pneumonia in high-incidence countries should be screened for TB

tuberculose enfants

Tuberculosis affects 1 million children each year; less than half of them are diagnosed and treated for the disease, which leads to more than 200,000 deaths. In a new study, researchers and clinicians from the TB-Speed consortium funded by global health agency Unitaid and led by the University of Bordeaux, in collaboration with the French Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD) and MU-JHU (a research collaboration between Makerere University and John Hopkins University in Uganda), showed that screening for tuberculosis at the time of hospital admission was feasible in children with severe pneumonia. In addition, screening with a molecular test called Xpert Ultra improved the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children in countries with high incidence of the disease. The results of the study argue for a more systematic use of the Xpert Ultra in these children, especially in those suffering from severe acute malnutrition. They also confirm the importance of tuberculosis as a cause of severe pneumonia.

Des applications pour contrôler la fertilité, vraiment ?

femme_ téléphone

Plusieurs centaines de millions de femmes ont recours chaque jour à des applications permettant de suivre leurs cycles menstruels et de contrôler leur fertilité. Leur fiabilité pour garantir une contraception naturelle aux femmes est-elle avérée ? Et la protection des données personnelles est-elle assurée pour préserver le droit à la vie privée des usagères ? Canal Détox fait le point.

1er décembre 2022 : Journée mondiale de lutte contre le sida

Macrophages infectés par le VIH : Les protéines virales sont en vert, les microtubules en rouge et les noyaux en bleu. Taille des noyaux : 5µm © Inserm/Institut Curie, R. Gaudin/P. Bernaroch

Très impliqués dans la recherche sur le VIH, les scientifiques de l’Inserm sont tout au long de l’année mobilisés afin de trouver de nouvelles stratégies de prévention, de diagnostic et de traitement. Retour sur deux récentes études publiées en 2022, qui témoignent de cette implication.

A New Gene Therapy Strategy for Sickle Cell Disease and Beta-Thalassemia

Globules rouges en forme de faucille (drépanocytose)

Both sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia are genetic disorders that affect hemoglobin, and as such are categorized as beta-hemoglobinopathies. A team of scientists from Inserm, Université Paris Cité and the Paris Public Hospitals Group AP-HP at the Imagine Institute has shown the efficacy of a gene therapy approach to treat these two disorders. The principle is to reactivate in patients the production of fetal hemoglobin, a protein whose expression usually ceases after birth.

Alzheimer’s disease: newly identified rare gene variants significantly increase the risk of developing this pathology.

Alzheimer

An international consortium has identified rare variants in two new genes that markedly increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The work was led by two research groups in France (headed respectively by Gaël Nicolas, Rouen and Jean-Charles Lambert, Lille) and a group in the Netherlands (headed by Henne Holstege, Amsterdam). The new results provide a better understanding of the genetics of AD and open up new research themes on more relevant in vitro and in vivo models. The consortium’s findings are also likely to catalyze the development of new strategies for treating AD.

Research shows fatty liver disease endangers brain health

People with liver disease caused by eating too much sugar and fat could be at increased risk of developing serious neurological conditions like depression or dementia. In a study examining the link between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and brain dysfunction, scientists at the Roger Williams Institute of Hepatology, affiliated to King’s College London and the University of La²usanne, found an accumulation of fat in the liver causes a decrease in oxygen to the brain and inflammation to brain tissue – both of which have been proven to lead to the onset of severe brain diseases.

A potential therapy to reduce the side effects of a chemotherapy

Cisplatin is a chemotherapy indicated to fight tumors in many types of cancer. However, it does have major side effects – especially kidney toxicity, that can lead to acute kidney failure. In addition, patients treated with cisplatin also often report high levels of neuropathic pain. Scientists from Inserm, Université de Lille, University Hospital Lille, CNRS and Institut Pasteur de Lille within the CANTHER and Lille Neuroscience & Cognition laboratories, in collaboration with researchers from Michigan State University (USA), have identified a drug that could be a game changer for patients. Istradefylline, which is already approved for Parkinson’s disease, could not only reduce the harmful effects of cisplatin but also improve its anti-tumor properties. These findings will now need to be confirmed in a clinical trial.

Rapport Euro-Peristat : état des lieux de la santé périnatale en France par rapport aux autres pays européens

bébé

Le 15 novembre 2022 est publié le nouveau rapport Euro-Peristat, projet européen coordonné par l’Inserm et mis en place depuis 2000. Celui-ci rassemble des statistiques sur la santé périnatale de 28 pays, pour la période allant de 2015 à 2019. La comparaison de la France à ses voisins permet d’aboutir à un bilan contrasté, avec en particulier un taux de césariennes maîtrisé, mais une situation moins favorable en ce qui concerne la mortinatalité (enfants mort-nés à partir de 24 semaines d’aménorrhée).

Le QI, une mesure fiable de l’intelligence vraiment ?

Le quotient intellectuel (ou QI) est un sujet qui anime bien des passions. Mais qu’entend-on par QI et intelligence ? Les tests que l’on trouve sur internet sont-ils vraiment fiables ? Et à quoi servent réellement les scores de QI ?

Identifier le haut potentiel intellectuel avec un test sur Internet, vraiment ?

Comment définit-on concrètement le concept de haut potentiel intellectuel ? Et quelles sont les priorités pour les chercheurs qui travaillent dans ce domaine ?

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